qbit

2007-08-09 03:09:50 UTC

Debunked by Proof: The Hafele&Keating RT Time Dilation Experiment of 1971

The famous RT Time Dilation Experiment by Hafele&Keating

was performed 1971. They flew in planes around the world and

measured the time dilation at an altitude about 10 km. They made two

roundtrips around the globe; one Eastwards and another westwards.

Hafele&Keating in their paper said they have measured the following values:

Eastflight: -59 nsec in 65.42 hours flight time

Westflight: +273 nsec in 80.33 hours flight time

(see http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/ptti/1971/Vol%2003_17.pdf )

But at that time the uncertainty rate of the atomic clocks

was 27.38 nanoseconds per day (see below and

http://tf.nist.gov/general/pdf/2056.pdf )

Because of that fact alone can their result not be accurate.

Let's do the math that proves them wrong:

For the EastFlight the uncertainty amounts to 65.42 / 24 * 27.38 = 74.63 nanoseconds :-)

--> this is even 1.26 factors more than what they claim to have measured!!!

For the Westflight the uncertainty amounts to 80.33 / 24 * 27.38 = 91.64 nanoseconds

--> this is even 1/3 of the allegedly measured value!!!

Ergo: the H&K results are useless trash as no statistician and

no statistical significance test can accept this inaccuracy!

For 36 years nobody saw this error in the data!

Even at wikipedia it is classified as "Problematic Physics Experiments":

"Hafele-Keating (1971) - time dilation in clocks flown around the world

The effect itself does not seem to be generally in dispute, but

questions have been raised about their approach and statistical

analysis, given the large degree of variation between clocks.

It is claimed (Kelly) that under the revised USNO guidelines issued

the following year, the H-K results would have had to have been

REJECTED AS UNRELIABLE. This does not seem to be disputed."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problematic_physics_experiments

"That result was contested by Dr. A. G. Kelly who examined the raw data:

according to him, the final published outcome had to be averaged in a

biased way in order to claim such a high precision. Also, Louis Essen,

the inventor of the atomic clock, published an article in which he discussed

the (in his opinion) inadequate accuracy of the experiment."

---------------------------------------------------------------

History Of Atomic Clocks:

Accuracy of NIST NBS-4 and NBS-5 (year 1968 to 197x or so)

From a text from the mid-1970'ies entitled

"Twenty-Five Years Later... tick... tick... tick... - Atomic Timekeeping"

http://tf.nist.gov/general/pdf/2056.pdf

"[...]

Since 1960, several generations of NBS cesium beam devices

have provided our nation and NBS with a primary frequency standard.

NBS-II, successor of the experimental device NBS-I, furnished

this standard from 1960 until 1963, being replaced by NBS-III,

which was used until 1969.

NBS-5 became the latest generation of NBS cesium atom primary

frequency standards in 1972.

NBS-4, although initially completed in 1970, has been revised and

is presently used as an independent primary frequency standard.

Forming a system which is mutually supportive, NBS-4 and NBS-5

provide accuracies approximately 100,000 times better than the

second of time as measured by our revolving earth.

If NBS-5 was allowed to run constantly for one million years

without adjustment, it would still be accurate to better than

ten seconds!

Future primary frequency sources may someday replace these

cesium beam standards, as cesium devices replaced the

ammonia molecular clock, but the concept of atomic clocks

will continue.

[...]"

So, in 1971/1972 the NBS-5 atomic clocks had an uncertainty of

10 / (1E6 * 365.25) = 27.38 nanoseconds per day.

---------------------------------------------------------------

The famous RT Time Dilation Experiment by Hafele&Keating

was performed 1971. They flew in planes around the world and

measured the time dilation at an altitude about 10 km. They made two

roundtrips around the globe; one Eastwards and another westwards.

Hafele&Keating in their paper said they have measured the following values:

Eastflight: -59 nsec in 65.42 hours flight time

Westflight: +273 nsec in 80.33 hours flight time

(see http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/ptti/1971/Vol%2003_17.pdf )

But at that time the uncertainty rate of the atomic clocks

was 27.38 nanoseconds per day (see below and

http://tf.nist.gov/general/pdf/2056.pdf )

Because of that fact alone can their result not be accurate.

Let's do the math that proves them wrong:

For the EastFlight the uncertainty amounts to 65.42 / 24 * 27.38 = 74.63 nanoseconds :-)

--> this is even 1.26 factors more than what they claim to have measured!!!

For the Westflight the uncertainty amounts to 80.33 / 24 * 27.38 = 91.64 nanoseconds

--> this is even 1/3 of the allegedly measured value!!!

Ergo: the H&K results are useless trash as no statistician and

no statistical significance test can accept this inaccuracy!

For 36 years nobody saw this error in the data!

Even at wikipedia it is classified as "Problematic Physics Experiments":

"Hafele-Keating (1971) - time dilation in clocks flown around the world

The effect itself does not seem to be generally in dispute, but

questions have been raised about their approach and statistical

analysis, given the large degree of variation between clocks.

It is claimed (Kelly) that under the revised USNO guidelines issued

the following year, the H-K results would have had to have been

REJECTED AS UNRELIABLE. This does not seem to be disputed."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problematic_physics_experiments

"That result was contested by Dr. A. G. Kelly who examined the raw data:

according to him, the final published outcome had to be averaged in a

biased way in order to claim such a high precision. Also, Louis Essen,

the inventor of the atomic clock, published an article in which he discussed

the (in his opinion) inadequate accuracy of the experiment."

---------------------------------------------------------------

History Of Atomic Clocks:

Accuracy of NIST NBS-4 and NBS-5 (year 1968 to 197x or so)

From a text from the mid-1970'ies entitled

"Twenty-Five Years Later... tick... tick... tick... - Atomic Timekeeping"

http://tf.nist.gov/general/pdf/2056.pdf

"[...]

Since 1960, several generations of NBS cesium beam devices

have provided our nation and NBS with a primary frequency standard.

NBS-II, successor of the experimental device NBS-I, furnished

this standard from 1960 until 1963, being replaced by NBS-III,

which was used until 1969.

NBS-5 became the latest generation of NBS cesium atom primary

frequency standards in 1972.

NBS-4, although initially completed in 1970, has been revised and

is presently used as an independent primary frequency standard.

Forming a system which is mutually supportive, NBS-4 and NBS-5

provide accuracies approximately 100,000 times better than the

second of time as measured by our revolving earth.

If NBS-5 was allowed to run constantly for one million years

without adjustment, it would still be accurate to better than

ten seconds!

Future primary frequency sources may someday replace these

cesium beam standards, as cesium devices replaced the

ammonia molecular clock, but the concept of atomic clocks

will continue.

[...]"

So, in 1971/1972 the NBS-5 atomic clocks had an uncertainty of

10 / (1E6 * 365.25) = 27.38 nanoseconds per day.

---------------------------------------------------------------